BIN ranges or Bank Identification Number ranges form the first part of
the card account number and allow the type of card to be identified. Originally
cards starting with a '4' were Visa and '5', MasterCard. Now the system
is far more complex, resolving ranges and sub-ranges to MasterCard Streamline
Debit or Barlays Connect, etc.
EMV makes no use of BIN numbers. A different concept of using an Application
ID (AID) separates the different card types. Certain EMV parameters are
set per AID and include floor limits, TACs, etc. Cryptographic keys are
also set per AID and form part of the EMV configuration parameter set.
One aspect of the chip card data is that the Card Sequence Numbers, or
Issue Numbers, if present, are all 2 digits in length, unlike their magnetic
stripe counterparts. In order to access hot card file data from legacy
systems, often 1 and 2 digit Issue Numbers are used to form part of the
look-up key. To avoid storing two sets of hot card data, some systems
integrators are still using BIN ranges simply to access hot card data
efficiently. This is seen as a necessary but short term solution as there
should be no link between BIN ranges and EMV.